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Hydrocephalus is a condition in which the primary characteristic is excessive accumulation of fluid in the brain.


Hydrocephalus is a condition in which the primary characteristic is excessive accumulation of fluid in the brain. Although hydrocephalus was once known as “water on the brain, the “water” is actually cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) – a clear fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord.

The excessive accumulation of CSF results in an abnormal dilation of the spaces in the brain called ventricles. This dilation causes potentially harmful pressure on the tissues of the brain.

Hydrocephalus may be congenital or acquired. Congenital hydrocephalus is present at birth and may be caused by either environmental influences or genetic predisposition.

Acquired hydrocephalus develops at the time of birth or at some point afterward. Acquired hydrocephalus can affect individuals of all ages and may be caused by injury or disease.


Symptoms of hydrocephalus vary with age, disease progression, and individual
differences in tolerance to CSF. In infancy, the most obvious indication of
hydrocephalus is often the rapid increase in head circumstance or an unusually
large head size.

In older children and adults, symptoms may include headache followed by
vomiting, nausea, papilledema (swelling of the optic disk, which is part of the
optic nerve), downward deviation of the eyes (called “sunsetting”),
problems with balance, poor coordination, gait disturbance, urinary
incontinence, slowing or loss of development, lethargy, drowsiness,
irritability, or other changes in personality or cognition, including memory


Hydrocephalus is diagnosed through clinical neurological evaluation and by using cranial imaging techniques such as ultrasonography, computer tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or pressure-monitoring techniques.


The prognosis for patients diagnosed with hydrocephalus is difficult to predict, although there is some correlation between the specific cause of hydrocephalus and the patient's outcome. Prognosis is further complicated by the presence of associated disorders, the timeliness of diagnosis, and the success of treatment.

Affected individuals and their families should be aware that hydrocephalus poses risks to both cognitive and physical development. Treatment by an interdisciplinary team of medical professionals, rehabilitation specialists, and educational experts is critical to a positive outcome.

Many children diagnosed with the disorder benefit from rehabilitation therapies and educational interventions, and go on to lead normal lives with few limitations.


The symptoms of hydrocephalus can often be managed by shunting of fluid, requiring surgery.

(Reviewed by Dr Andrew Rose-Innes, Yale University)

The information provided in this article was correct at the time of publishing. At Mediclinic we endeavour to provide our patients and readers with accurate and reliable information, which is why we continually review and update our content. However, due to the dynamic nature of clinical information and medicine, some information may from time to time become outdated prior to revision.