What is a hairy tongue?
A hairy tongue is due to a profuse overgrowth of a particular type of taste bud – the filiform papillae – which gives the appearance of thick fur on the tongue.
What causes a hairy tongue?
This can result from:
- Antibiotic treatment
- Excessive use of mouthwashes which liberate oxygen from the mouth environment
- Reduction in salivary flow due to problems with the salivary glands
Brown papillae are usually due to tobacco staining or overgrowth of a particular type of bacteria called chromogenic – meaning colour producing.
What are the symptoms and signs of a hairy tongue?
There are no symptoms associated with a hairy tongue.
The appearance of the tongue is characteristic – it looks furry.
Hairy tongue must be distinguished from oral hairy leukoplakia.
Oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) is caused by a virus (the Epstein-Barr virus). OHL is characterised by whitish, streaky plaques, usually located on the sides of the tongue at the back. OHL is strongly associated with HIV/AIDS.
How is a hairy tongue treated?
Treatment is of the underlying cause, such as stopping antibiotics or mouthwashes or dealing with the salivary gland problems.
When to see your doctor
Any abnormal appearance of the tongue should be investigated by a doctor.
(Reviewed by Prof H.F. Jordaan)
The information provided in this article was correct at the time of publishing. At Mediclinic we endeavour to provide our patients and readers with accurate and reliable information, which is why we continually review and update our content. However, due to the dynamic nature of clinical information and medicine, some information may from time to time become outdated prior to revision.