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Huntington’s disease

Huntington's disease (HD) results from degeneration of brain cells in certain areas and causes uncontrolled movements, loss of intellectual faculties and emotional disturbance.

Description

  • Huntington's disease (HD) results from genetically programmed degeneration of brain cells, called neurons, in certain areas of the brain.
  • HD is a familial disease, passed from parent to child
  • Some early symptoms of HD are mood swings, depression, irritability, trouble driving, memory loss and abnormal movements.

Huntington's disease (HD) results from genetically programmed degeneration of brain cells, called neurons, in certain areas of the brain. This degeneration causes uncontrolled movements, loss of intellectual faculties and emotional disturbance.

HD is a familial disease, passed from parent to child through a mutation in the normal gene. Each child of an HD parent has a 50-50 chance of inheriting the HD gene. If a child does not inherit the HD gene, he or she will not develop the disease and cannot pass it to subsequent generations.

A person who inherits the HD gene will sooner or later develop the disease. Whether one child inherits the gene has no bearing on whether others will or will not inherit the gene.

Symptoms

Some early symptoms of HD are mood swings, depression, irritability or trouble driving, memory loss and abnormal movements.

As the disease progresses, concentration on intellectual tasks becomes increasingly difficult and the patient may have difficulty feeding himself or herself and swallowing. The rate of disease progression and the age of onset vary from person to person.

Diagnosis

A genetic test, coupled with a complete medical history and neurological and laboratory tests, help doctors diagnose HD. Presymptomic testing is available for individuals who are at risk for carrying the HD gene. In one to three percent of individuals with HD, no family history of HD can be found.

Prognosis

At this time, there is no way to stop or reverse the course of HD. Now that the HD gene has been located, investigators are continuing to study the HD gene with an eye toward understanding how it causes disease in the human body. Abnormal movements can be controlled with medication.

(Reviewed by Dr Andrew Rose-Innes, Yale University School of Medicine)



The information provided in this article was correct at the time of publishing. At Mediclinic we endeavour to provide our patients and readers with accurate and reliable information, which is why we continually review and update our content. However, due to the dynamic nature of clinical information and medicine, some information may from time to time become outdated prior to revision.